Applications

The CytoTrack technology is a general purpose instrument for detection of RARE CELLS. 

Common applications: CTC (Circulating Tumor Cells), and FCMB (Foetal Cells in Mother Blood) 

Circulating Tumor Cells

The number of CTCs within a blood sample can be used as a prognostic factor and give an indication of whether or not the cancer is actively spreading. Patients with severe metastatic cancer will generally have a higher level of CTCs compared with local cancers.

By monitoring the number of CTCs during a course of treatment, the effectiveness of the treatment can be assessed. That is, a decrease in the number of CTCs during treatment is an indication of effective treatment.

CytoTrack allows for identification and enumeration of CTCs through the HD image catalog presented to the user.

scheme-smallEpCAM Characterization
Lack of EpCAM expression on some CTCs may explain why these are undetectable in some patients with metastatic epithelial malignancies when detection of CTC is based on EpCAM.

CytoTrack is developing an accessory reagent for simultaneous analysis for EpCAM protein expression on CTC.

 

 

 

CTC characterization

Characterization of CTCs as surrogates for the metastatic tumors may provide better treatment guidance for patients with metastatic disease compared with conventional characterization of the primary tumors.

CytoTrack is developing new applications for characterization of CTCs detected by the CytoTrack CTC Enumeration Kit.

The location of each CTC on the CytoDisc allows for either simultaneous or sequential analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) staining of individual CTC and visualization by the CytoTrack scanner.

HER2 Characterization
Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) analysis of the primary tumor is used to guide therapy with trastuzumab, however up to 20% of patients with HER2+ breast cancer do not respond to therapy and 24% of patients with HER2+ tumors have HER2- metastatic tumors1,2.

HER2 characterization of CTCs may provide better guidance for therapy.

CytoTrack is developing an accessory reagent for identification of HER2+ for CTCs.

ER Characterization
Estrogen receptor (ER) analysis of the primary tumor is used to guide endocrine therapy, however up to 40% of patients with ER+ tumors do not respond to therapy and around 20% of patients with ER+ tumors have ER- metastatic tumors.3,4

CytoTrack is developing an accessory reagent for identification of ER+ for CTCs.

pHER2 Characterization
The activation status of HER2 as phosphorylated human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (pHER2) indicates active pathway signaling, and may be more biologically relevant than expression of total protein.

pHER2 is associated with poor prognosis and may confer increased sensitivity toward trastuzumab-targeted therapy.

CytoTrack is part of a consortium under the EU 7th Framework program developing assays for the characterization of phosphorylated, a.k.a. activated form of HER2.

PIK3CA mutations
Mutations in the PIK3CA gene have been identified in carcinomas arising from colon, breast, ovary, liver, stomach, and lung as well as in glioblastoma. This mutation leads to constitutive activation of the PI3K pathway.

Mutations in PIK3CA are associated with a more aggressive clinical course and data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mutations in the PIK3CA gene confer resistance to trastuzumab.

CytoTrack is part of a consortium under the EU 7th Framework program developing assays for the characterization of mutation of exon 9 and exon 20 of the PIK3CA gene.

Collaboration
Please contact us if you are interested in collaboration regarding the above markers or if you are interested in collaboration regarding other CTC markers.

CTC Enumeration

ctc-enumeration

Image of CTCs (green = CK-positive) surrounded by leukocytes.

HER2 Characterization

her2-characterization

Image of HER2 positive CTCs. The red marker is positive for HER2  positive cells.